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Impfvorschriften Gelbfieber

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Nigeria Gelbfieber

Beitragvon Robert » 15.03.2008 10:04

Im Falle von Nigeria ist es sogar so, dass bei Visumsantrag der Nachweis einer Gelbfieberimpfung vorgelegt werden muss. Dies wird soweit ich informiert bin, bei allen nigerianischen Botschaften in Europa so gehandhabt.

Uebrigens bei Burkina Faso wird dies gleich gehandhabt.
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Beitragvon Birgitt » 15.07.2009 19:15

Angola - Änderung der Visabestimmungen
15.07.2009

Ein Impfnachweis für Gelbfieber, Hepatitis A und B muss bereits beim Visumantrag bei der Botschaft von Angola vorgewiesen werden. Zudem werden die Impfungen auch bei der Einreise kontrolliert. / Quelle: crm

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Beitragvon Birgitt » 28.01.2011 19:58

YELLOW FEVER - AFRICA (10): EAST AFRICA, TRAVEL ALERT
********************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

Date: Fri 21 Jan 2011
Source: AllAfrica, Daily Nation (Kenya) [edited]
<http://allafrica.com/stories/201101240158.html>


A mandatory yellow fever jab [vaccination] for travellers within East
Africa was ordered yesterday [20 Jan 2011] to contain an outbreak of
the disease in Uganda. Tanzania's health minister Dr Hadji Mponda said
efforts are being made to establish vaccination centres at all border
posts following a meeting of the region's health ministers in Arusha.
Dr Mponda told reporters the East African Community [EAC] partner
states have agreed to make vaccination against the disease compulsory.
Although he said no case of the disease had been reported in Tanzania,
he admitted that his ministry could not rule out a possibility of the
epidemic crossing into the country. "We have tightened screening of
travellers entering the country and I have not been notified of any
case within our borders," he said.

Dr Mponda said that the new measures would reinforce yellow fever
checks at major airports, where the on-the-spot jabs would also be
administered. Dr Stanley Sonoya, head of the health unit at the EAC
secretariat, said the health ministers would consider joint
cross-border immmunisation campaigns.

According to Ugandan authorities, at least 190 people have been
affected by the outbreak with 48 reported killed as at [30 Dec 2010].

Speaking at the meeting, EAC deputy secretary-general Jean Claude
Nsengiyumva said the yellow fever outbreak was a major concern to the
region. Kenya's Public Health minister Beth Mugo said she was not
aware if the disease had spread into her country.

[Byline: Zephania Ubwani]

--
Communicated by:
HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[East African health authorities doubtless are aware that solid
immunity is achieved 10 days after administration of the vaccine.
Individuals entering into the area of yellow fever virus transmission
should be vaccinated at least 10 days before entering those areas. For
those leaving the affected area, vaccination will not instantly
terminate a yellow fever virus infection and viremic individuals can
cross international borders with their virus. Nonetheless, vaccination
of travelers will immunize mobile individuals and intensification of
surveillance of travelers to detect ill, febrile individuals as they
cross borders, may both be helpful in reducing the risk of spread into
neighboring countries.

The HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map showing Uganda and
neighboring East African countries can be accessed at
<http://healthmap.org/r/0089>. - Mod.TY]]
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Beitragvon Birgitt » 01.02.2011 20:22

Burundi, Ruanda - Gelbfieber
01.02.2011

Aufgrund des Gelbfieber-Ausbruchs in Uganda haben die Länder der East African Community (Burundi, Kenia, Tansania, Ruanda und Uganda) beschlossen, den Nachweis einer Gelbfieber-Impfung stärker zu kontrollieren. Eine Impfung ist für alle Reisenden (auch bei Einreise aus Europa) vorgeschrieben. / Quelle: crm
__________________

Kenia - Gelbfieber
01.02.2011

Aufgrund des Gelbfieber-Ausbruchs in Uganda haben die Länder der East African Community (Burundi, Kenia, Tansania, Ruanda und Uganda) beschlossen, den Nachweis einer Gelbfieber-Impfung stärker zu kontrollieren. Genauere Angaben zur Umsetzung sind noch nicht bekannt. Um Schwierigkeiten bei der Einreise zu vermeiden sollten alle Reisenden, auch bei der Einreise aus Europa, einen gültigen Impfnachweis vorweisen können. Eine Impfung wird allen Reisenden empfohlen. / Quelle: crm
__________________

Tansania - Gelbfieber
01.02.2011

Aufgrund des Gelbfieber-Ausbruchs in Uganda haben die Länder der East African Community (Burundi, Kenia, Tansania, Ruanda und Uganda) beschlossen, den Nachweis einer Gelbfieber-Impfung stärker zu kontrollieren. Die Regierung Tanasanias hat an der Grenze zu Uganda Impfstationen eingerichtet um nicht geimpfte Reisende vor Ort impfen zu können. Die Kontrollen an allen Grenzübergängen und Flughäfen wurden verschärft. Laut Botschaftsangaben sollte auch bei Einreise aus Europa ein gültiger Impfnachweis vorhanden sein, Zwangsimpfungen oder die Verweigerung der Einreiseerlaubnis können nicht ausgeschlossen werden. Eine Impfung wird allen Reisenden empfohlen. / Quelle: crm


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Beitragvon Birgitt » 08.02.2011 19:31

Uganda - Gelbfieber
08.02.2011

Die seit Ende Oktober gemeldete unklare Erkankung konnte als Gelbfieber indentifiziert werden. Im Norden des Landes sind mindestens 226 Erkrankungs- und 53 Todesfälle aufgetreten. Die Krankheit ist in Uganda seit 40 Jahren nicht mehr gemeldet worden, die Immunität der Bevölkerung ist dementsprechend schlecht. Am 22. Januar begann die erste Impfphase; jeder, der über sechs Monate alt ist, kann sich in den Stationen impfen lassen. Es kommen auch viele Menschen aus den umliegenden Regionen und aus dem benachbarten Sudan.
Aufgrund des Gelbfieber-Ausbruchs haben die Länder der East African Community (Burundi, Kenia, Tansania, Ruanda und Uganda) beschlossen, den Nachweis einer Gelbfieber-Impfung stärker zu kontrollieren. Genauere Angaben zur Umsetzung sind noch nicht bekannt. Um Schwierigkeiten bei der Einreise zu vermeiden sollten alle Reisenden, auch bei der Einreise aus Europa, einen gültigen Impfnachweis vorweisen können. / Quelle: crm

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Beitragvon Birgitt » 17.03.2011 20:33

In Uganda hat sich bei meiner Ankunft in Entebbe/Airport (von FRA via ADD) am 18. Februar 2011 niemand für den Gelbfieberimpfnachweis interessiert.

Auch am Grenzübergang Malaba war bei der Einreise von Uganda nach Kenia am 6. März 2011 keinerlei Nachfrage nach Impfpapieren.

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Beitragvon Birgitt » 19.03.2011 11:00

Mosambik - Gelbfieber-Impfung
15.03.2011

Aus mehreren, voneinander unabhängigen Berichten geht hervor, dass offenbar in den letzten Wochen bei der Einreise nach Mosambik auch aus Nicht-Gelbfieberendemie-Ländern die Vorlage einer GF-Impfbescheinigung verlangt wird. Aus diesem Grunde wird aus reisetechnischen Gründen empfohlen, die GF-Impfung auch bei Einreise aus Europa durchzuführen, wenn keine Kontraindikation vorliegt. / Quelle: crm

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Beitragvon Birgitt » 20.04.2011 19:06

Reise-/Sicherheitshinweis des AA für Mosambik vom 20.04.2011

Reisende berichten, dass auch bei der Einreise aus gelbfieberfreien Ländern (wie z.B. Südafrika oder Simbabwe) entgegen den eigenen Bestimmungen der mosambikanischen Behörden ein Gelbfieberimpfnachweis bei Einreise verlangt wird. Mit dem Hinweis auf internationalen Gesundheitsvorschriften und die landeseigenen Bestimmungen sollte versucht werden, eine medizinisch und epidemiologisch sinnlose Zwangsimpfung bei der Einreise zu vermeiden.

Auswärtiges Amt

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Beitragvon Birgitt » 08.05.2011 20:39

Kenia - Gelbfieber
05.05.2011

Anfang Mai wurde ein kleiner Ausbruch im Distrikt Baringo (Provinz Rift Valley, ca. 200 km nördlich von Nairobi) gemeldet. Neun der insgesamt 16 Verdachtsfälle konnten bestätigt werden, bisher gab es sechs Todesfälle. Nun soll eine große Impfaktion einen größeren Ausbruch verhindern. Die Impfung bietet nur für 10 Jahre einen zuverlässigen Schutz, die letzten Massenimmunisierungen sind entsprechend lange her. Bei Einreise nach Kenia wird die Impfung bereits aufgrund des Gelbfieber-Ausbruchs in Uganda stärker kontrolliert. Eine Impfung wird auch aus medizinischer Sicht allen Reisenden empfohlen. / Quelle: crm

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Neue Richtlinien Gelbfieber ex Sambia nach Südafrika

Beitragvon Robert » 18.06.2011 12:13

Am 30.6. wird neu bei Reisenden von Sambia nach Südafrika eine Gelbfieberimpfung vorgeschrieben. Bereits auf der Homepage der South African Airways wurde Sambia als Gelbfieberendemiegebiet neu definiert. http://www.flysaa.com/Journeys/cms/ZA/essentialInfo/_categories/essentialinfo/YellowFever.html
Sogar Transitreisende, welche von Sambia her via Johannesburg nach Europa fliegen, müssen eine Gelbfieberimpfung vorweisen können.
Transitreisende benötigen unabhängig von der Dauer des Transitaufenthalts einen Nachweis einer Gelbfieberimpfung.


Diese neue Regelung wurde eingeführt nach Publikation der neuen Gelbfieberkarte von CDC und WHO.

Bild

Wenn man genau hinschaut, steht bei Sambia, dass die Impfung generell nicht empfohlen werde. Aber ein Zusatz wurde hinzugefügt:
*Yellow fever (YF) vaccination is generally not recommended in areas where there is low potential for YF virus exposure. However, vaccination might be considered for a small subset of travelers to these areas who are at increased risk for exposure to YF virus because of prolonged travel, heavy exposure to mosquitoes, or inability to avoid mosquito bites. Consideration for vaccination of any traveler must take into account the traveler’s risk of being infected with YF virus, country entry requirements, and individual risk factors for serious vaccine-associated adverse events (e.g., age, immune status).

Übersetzt: Die Impfung kann bei Reisenden mit höherem Risiko einer Gelbfieberexposition wegen längerer Reisedauer, starker Mückenexposition und Unmöglichkeit, sich vor Mückensticke zu schützen, in Betracht gezogen werden.

Dieser Zusatz reichte den Südafrikanern Sambia als Endemiegebiet zu bezeichnen. Erwähnenswert ist, dass in letzter Zeit keine Fälle von Gelbfieber in Sambia aufgetreten sind. Also aus medizinischer Sicht keine Gefahr in Sambia besteht.

Ob sich die anderen Länder in der gleichen Zollunion wie Botswana und Namibia den Empfehlungen der Südafrikaner anschliessen, ist mir unbekannt.

Robert
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Gelbfieber in Südamerika

Beitragvon Robert » 18.06.2011 12:18

Vollständigkeitshalber hier noch die neue Karte für Südamerika:

Bild

Robert
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Beitragvon Birgitt » 11.07.2011 20:57

Sao Tomé & Principe - Gelbfieber-Impfung
08.07.2011

Nach Angaben des Auswärtigen Amtes wird der Nachweis einer Gelbfieberimpfung bei Einreise nicht mehr verlangt.

Quelle: crm

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Beitragvon Birgitt » 29.07.2011 22:51

Südafrika - Gelbfieber-Impfung
28.07.2011

In letzter Zeit sind die offiziellen Angaben zu den Gelbfieber-Impfvorschriften für den Reiseverkehr zwischen Südafrika und Sambia sehr widersprüchlich. Das südafrikanische Gesundheitsministerium hat seine kürzlich geänderte Impfvorschrift wieder zurückgenommen. Nach Angaben der Botschaft Südafrikas und des Auswärtigen Amtes müssen Reisende allerdings auch bei der Einreise aus Sambia nach Südafrika eine gültige Gelbfieber-Impfung vorweisen können. Um Schwierigkeiten zu vermeiden, sollten Reisende sich rechtzeitig vor der Abreise aus Deutschland bei der Botschaft oder dem Auswärtigen Amt informieren. / Quelle: crm

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Impfvorschriften Gelbfieber

Beitragvon Birgitt » 06.09.2011 22:42

Südafrika - Gelbfieber-Impfung
02.09.2011

Bei Einreise aus oder Transit (auch nur Wechsel des Flugzeuges) durch ein von der WHO als Gelbfieberendemiegebiet deklariertes Land wird der Nachweis einer gültigen Gelbfieberimpfung verlangt. Nach Auskunft der südafrikanischen Behörden wird Sambia ebenfalls neu auf die Liste der Gelbfieberendemiegebiete gesetzt, so dass ab 1. Oktober 2011 eine Impfung nach Aufenthalt dort bei der Einreise nach Südafrika verlangt wird. Da einige Fluggesellschaften (z.B. Zambesi Airlines) diese Regelung bereits jetzt umsetzen und Passagiere ohne Gelbfieberimpfung nicht an Bord lassen, sollte das besonders bei Reiseplänen von Südafrika aus nach Sambia z.B. zu den Victoriafällen berücksichtigt werden. Die Grenzbehörden wurden angehalten, diese Regelungen konsequent umzusetzen und Reisende mit entsprechendem Reiseprofil aber ohne Impfnachweis entweder direkt zurückzuschicken oder für 6 Tage auf eigene Kosten abzusondern (Quarantäne). / Quelle: crm

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Ostafrika - Impfvorschriften Gelbfieber Tansania

Beitragvon Birgitt » 29.10.2011 13:14

Tansania - Gelbfieber
27.10.2011

Aufgrund des Gelbfieber-Ausbruchs in Uganda haben die Länder der East African Community (Burundi, Kenia, Tansania, Ruanda und Uganda) beschlossen, den Nachweis einer Gelbfieber-Impfung stärker zu kontrollieren. Der Nachweis einer Gelbfieberimpfung ist offiziell nur bei Einreise aus einem Gelbfiebergebiet (ab dem vollendeten 1. Lebensjahr) erforderlich. Entgegen diesen offiziellen Bestimmungen sind vereinzelt auch bei Direkteinreisen aus Europa am Kilimanjaro International Airport sowie bei der Einreise nach Sansibar vom Festland Tansanias aus Kontrollen des Gelbfieberimpfzertifikats erfolgt, in Einzelfällen war es zu Impfungen vor Ort gekommen. Das tansanische Gesundheitsministerium hat deshalb zwischenzeitlich folgende Regelung verbindlich festgelegt.

  1. Reisende aus Endemiegebieten benötigen eine Gelbfieberimpfung.
  2. Reisende aus Nicht-Endemiegebieten (z. B. Europa) benötigen nur dann eine Gelbfieberimpfung, wenn sie in einem Gelbfiebergebiet den Flughafen beim Zwischenstopp verlassen oder mindestens 12 Stunden in diesem Flughafen auf ihren Anschlussflug warten.
Da die Behörden auf Sansibar Einreisen vom Festland als Ankunft aus einem Endemiegebiet ansehen, wird für die Weiterreise auf die Insel der Nachweis einer Gelbfieberimpfung erforderlich. / Quelle: crm

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Impfvorschriften Gelbfieber - Tansania

Beitragvon Birgitt » 02.03.2013 12:13

YELLOW FEVER - AFRICA (07): TANZANIA, FALSE VACCINATION CERTIFICATES
************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org


Date: Tue 5 Feb 2013
Source: All Africa [edited]
http://allafrica.com/stories/201302050087.html


Random authorization and issuance of yellow fever certificates has come to the attention of the government, which has launched an investigation to nab perpetrators.

The document, usually issued to travellers visiting foreign countries after being administered with vaccination against yellow fever, is reportedly being issued indiscriminately at Mnazi Mmoja and at the airport in Dar es Salaam, with bribes in return for the illegal service.

The deputy minister for health and social welfare, Dr Seif Suleiman Rashid, informed legislators in Dodoma that those seeking shortcuts risked health complications, and both legal and disciplinary measures would be taken against those issuing certificates.

The deputy minister was responding to a question by Haji Khatibu Kai, (MP for Micheweni [Civic United Front]) who demanded clarification on the purpose of yellow fever vaccination for travellers and the need for the government to hire and deploy more health officers at Horohoro Border Post in Tanga Region, where some of the travellers cross the border without being examined. There are only 2 officers in the area.

"[Inappropriate] issuance of yellow fever certificates is uncalled-for and cannot be tolerated. The society should refuse to run unnecessary risks because travelling out of the country without vaccination is dangerous to the traveller, who could contract the disease and spread it to others back home," Dr Rashid explained.

--
communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[Issuance of fake yellow fever vaccination cards, or of cards to individuals who have not been vaccinated, is a cause for serious concern. The Tanzania health authorities are justified in cracking down on this practice, as did Nigerian health officials in 2012 when sale of fake cards came to light. There are 2 serious risks associated with this practice. First, individuals going into yellow fever (YF) endemic areas are not protected against this serious disease with its 30 per cent case fatality rate. Second, and perhaps more serious, is the risk of YF virus infected individuals going to places where the mosquito vector is present and starting new outbreaks in areas where the population has no immunity from immunization.

Although ProMED-mail has not reported YF cases in Tanzania, YF outbreaks have occurred in neighboring Kenya, where the virus occurs in the forest (sylvan) cycle of transmission (see ProMED-mail archive number 20110504.1377 for a summary and related references).

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Tanzania can be accessed at http://healthmap.org/r/1KlV. - Mod.TY]
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Gelbfieber - Impfstoff in Indien knapp

Beitragvon Birgitt » 09.04.2013 18:55

YELLOW FEVER VACCINE AVAILABILITY - INDIA
*****************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org


Date: Sun 24 Mar 2013
Source: Deccan Herald [summ. & edited]
http://www.deccanherald.com/content/321 ... i-has.html


Are you [in India] planning an African safari this summer? A getaway to the Serengeti in Tanzania to film the wildebeest and stalk the Big Five? Be warned. Your plans could go very wrong. All because of a seemingly small yet significant detail called the yellow fever [YF] vaccine, or rather, the lack of it in the State's Public Health Institute [PHI].

The Public Health Institute, Bangalore, the only designated centre in the state authorised to administer the vaccine, has been pleading "No Stock" for 2 months now. Worse, the "No Stock" syndrome seems to apply only to the PHI, where a dose of the vaccine costs Rs 200 [USD 3.68]. In the open market, pharmacists not only have adequate stock of the vaccine, they also sell a single dose at Rs 1534 [USD 28.23].

Desperate travellers have little choice but to fork out a small fortune for the vaccine, which they then carry to the PHI, which administers it.

Why isn't PHI being proactive in procuring the much-in-demand vaccine? "Yes, the number of people asking for the yellow fever vaccine is high during the holiday season. We give nearly 100 vaccinations every Wednesday, but for 2 months, we have had no stock. The vaccine comes to us from Kasauli in Himachal Pradesh," says Dr Jaikumar, deputy director and in-charge joint director, PHI Bangalore. Has the PHI been following up the shortage issue with the Central Research Institute (CRI), Kasauli? "Of course, but I cannot pressure them," he adds.

Paucity in the PHI is contrasted by plentiful stocks in some pharmacies in the City. Nearly 30-40 vaccines are sold a month during the holiday season in these pharmacies. They too say the vaccine is in short supply, but manage to get it on demand. A well-known pharmacy on Residency Road was able to procure 3 doses of the vaccine Stanmaril, manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur SA, based in Lyon, France, and imported and marketed in India by Sanofi Pasteur India Pvt Ltd, Navi Mumbai, in less than 12 hours of placing a request, at Rs 1534 [USD 28.23] a dose.

Those who have air tickets booked and safari schedules blocked prefer buying the vaccine for a hefty price at a pharmacy rather than bite their nails in frustration after making daily calls to the PHI to check on the availability of the vaccine.

The vaccination, valid for 10 years once taken, has a 20-day incubation period [11 day period for the vaccination to become effective], which makes it necessary for 1st-time travellers to plan their vaccination schedule.

Failure to take the vaccination may get one past immigration but would certainly mean quarantine for 10 days, on return, in a government hospital.

The best bet, if the PHI is out of stock, is [for travel agencies] to refer clients to the King Institute of Preventive Medicine, Guindy, Chennai, or the Institute of Preventive Medicine, Hyderabad.

"Not just the PHI, all designated government health centres across the country have no stock," says Dr Jaikumar.

While the Institute of Preventive Medicine, Hyderabad did say on the phone that they were out of stock, a phone call to King Institute in Chennai was answered with: "Yes, we have some vaccines. We cannot tell you how many. You need to come here and find out."

Going by the growing requests to pharmacies and PHI's "wait and see" approach, holiday-goers have little choice but to swallow the cynicism and stretch the wallet so that they can board their flight in peace.

[Byline: Kavitha K.]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail <promed@promedmail.org>

[The situation in India appears to be very confused, with some governmental health institutions having no vaccine in stock, but others do. If pharmacies are able to get vaccine, it is not clear why government health facilities are unable to. - Mod.TY]

[It is particularly important that travelers from Asia are vaccinated before visiting YF endemic areas of Africa and South America to avoid bringing yellow fever home with them. Indian and many other Asian cities already suffer from dengue epidemics because they are full of the same mosquito, _Aedes aegypti_, that spreads yellow fever. - Mod.JW

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/r/1pSH.]

.................................................jw/lm/ty/msp/lm
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Gelbfieber - Impfstoff Knappheit in Indien

Beitragvon Birgitt » 12.08.2013 11:58

YELLOW FEVER RISK - INDIA
*************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

Date: Sat 4 May 2013
Source: Times of India, Times News Network (TNN) [edited]
http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes ... isa-papers


This is certainly not a shot in the arm for those travelling to African countries. Non-availability of yellow fever vaccine is turning out to be a major hindrance to them with the vaccine going out of stock in the state.

For travelling to an African country, it is mandatory to submit a yellow certificate along with visa papers at the immigration and emigration counters.

The yellow certificate is issued to tourists by authorised port health organisations and select private hospitals after the person has been vaccinated at least 2 weeks before the travel.

"I was to travel on 6-17 May [2013] to the African region. My work requires me to travel to Dhaka and then go back to Ethiopia. So taking that vaccine is a must. But due to its non-availability, I am not able to travel," said a business consultant for the World Bank.

He said this had affected the travel plans and jobs of several people who have to visit these countries. With Gulf countries almost reaching its peak for skilled workers, Africa is the new destination for them.

The vaccine is normally available at the port health organisation office in Kochi for Rs 300 [USD 5.57]. But when one calls the office these days, the standard reply is 'out of stock'.

When one asks where it could be available, the reply is, "If it is urgent, you may buy [Stamaril -- yellow fever vaccine] from a medical shop for Rs 1500 [USD 28]. Please buy the kit and bring it here. You can take the vaccine and will be issued certificate from here."

[The business consultant] said the non-availability of vaccine had also affected those hoping to join the Merchant Navy.

"We have been getting a lot of calls for this vaccine. But there is a shortage for the last one month. It is not available even with the stockists," said an official at Kunhalu's nursing home, an authorized hospital for issuing the certificate.

Travel agents said the certificate could be given even without administering the vaccine as countries claim to have eradicated yellow fever but the chances of tourists getting an infection are always there.

[Byline: Sudha Nambudiri]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

[One hopes that Indian health authorities are fully aware of the public health risk that issuance of yellow fever vaccination cards to travelers without application of the vaccine brings to the country. Should unvaccinated individuals become infected in Africa and travel back to India while viremic they could initiate ongoing transmission in a country that has been free of YF historically. India has dengue virus transmission ongoing every year. The same mosquitoes are involved in transmission of dengue and of yellow fever viruses. Although the risk of introduction of YF virus into India is probably slight, the consequences, should that happen, would be very serious. - Mod.TY

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/r/1pSH.]

.................................................ty/mj/lm
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Gelbfieber - Verfügbarkeit Impfstoff in Indien

Beitragvon Birgitt » 12.08.2013 20:36

YELLOW FEVER VACCINE AVAILABILITY - INDIA (02)
**********************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

Date: Sun 14 Jul 2013
Source: Business Standard [edited]
http://www.business-standard.com/articl ... 414_1.html


The Indian government has urgently procured yellow fever vaccine from multinational companies after a severe shortage resulting in people being unable to travel to African and some South American countries. Visas to Africa and tropical and sub-tropical South American countries can be obtained only after the applicant submits a certificate given by one of the country's 15 authorised vaccination centres.

"There was a shortage, but the government has imported the vaccine from multinational companies like Sanofi Pasteur, and the stock has arrived on 11 Jul [2013]," Director General of Health Services Jagdish Prasad admitted to IANS.

Earlier, the vaccine was manufactured at the Central Research Institute (CRI), Kasauli. But this stopped after the 2 machines it used for the purpose broke down. The total requirement for the vaccine is around 10.5 million vials. While CRI, Kasauli used to manufacture around 4 million vials, the balance was met through imports, a senior health ministry official said, adding the institute was never prepared to handle the huge demand.

Utpal Kumar Chattopadhyay, a senior official at the Institute of Health and Public Hygiene Kolkata, one of the centres where the vaccine is administered, told IANS that the last shot was given on 21 Jun [2013]. Neelam Gupta of the Travel Safe Clinic, which is another such centre in Noida, near the capital said: "There has been a shortage for nearly one month now." She said a shot of the vaccine at her clinic cost Rs 2800 [USD 47] (against Rs 400 [USD 7] at a government-run facility). "But we will also administer the shot if somebody procures the vaccine from outside."

Yashpal Jain, a businessman who is scheduled to travel to Zambia and has been running from pillar to post to get the vaccine said: "There are 4 centres in Delhi, and all of them have run out of the vaccine. I will wait for another 10 days and then try again."

Another group of people who have been hit are vacationers. Lalit Sharma, who had planned a summer holiday in South America, said: "There has been a severe shortage across the country. I have not been able to get the vaccine shot and hence have postponed the trip."

Yellow fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease. It is transmitted by the bite of the _Aedes aegypti_ female mosquito, and [the virus] is found in tropical and subtropical areas in South America and in all of Africa, but not in Asia.

Apart from being important for personal protection, yellow fever vaccination and its proof is a condition of entry in many countries, especially for travelers who have recently arrived from a country in a yellow fever zone. Failure to take the vaccination may get one past immigration, but would certainly mean quarantine for 10 days on return in a government hospital, experts said.

[Byline: Sreeparna Chakrabarty]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[The unavailability of yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been a serious problem in India for several months, with significant inconvenience for business travelers and tourists. Some previous articles in the Indian popular press allege that yellow fever vaccination cards are being issued without administration of the vaccine. One certainly hopes that these reports are not true, as the arrival of an individual returning home to India from a YF endemic country viremic with YF virus could initiate an ongoing urban outbreak that could quickly become a very serious public health problem in India, since the vector mosquito is present in most of the country. One cannot help but wonder whether the cost of repairing the machines at the Central Research Institute, Kasauli would be cheaper for the government than continued importation of YF vaccine from outside sources.

Maps of India can be seen at
http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/india/i ... al-map.htm and http://healthmap.org/r/1pSH. - Mod.TY]
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Gelbfieber - Verfügbarkeit Impfstoff in Indien

Beitragvon Birgitt » 12.08.2013 20:49

YELLOW FEVER VACCINE AVAILABILITY - INDIA (03)
**********************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

Date: Fri 19 Jul 2013
Source: The Times of India [edited]
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/indi ... 152999.cms


The acute shortage of the yellow fever [YF] vaccine combined with a propensity for corruption could be posing a serious public health risk. Yellow fever vaccines are said to be out-of-stock in the entire country. Yet thousands of Indians continue to travel to countries which the World Health Organisation (WHO) has listed as being at risk of transmitting the disease and from where the disease could be imported. Touts are willing to ensure, for a consideration, that they get the vaccine booklet certifying that they have been vaccinated.

According to travel agents in Delhi and Mumbai, for a price, you can get certified that you have been vaccinated against yellow fever even if you can't get the vaccine. "When no vaccine is available no matter what price you are willing to pay and your tickets are booked, rather than lose money, people get fake certificates. This is India. If there is a demand, there will be supply," said a Delhi travel agency, which said that it received at least 5 applications every day for travel to Brazil, an endemic country.

There have been reports of fake certificates costing around Rs 5000-10 000 [USD 84-167]. That seems cheap at a time when reports also indicate that the few doses of the vaccine hoarded by chemists are being sold for as much as Rs 20 000 [USD 335] or more.

Quite apart from the moral dimension, the problem with this scenario is that these travellers could unwittingly end up being carriers for a killer disease that is not endemic to India or the rest of Asia. In fact, public health experts spoke to fear that India, by its inefficiency in managing yellow fever vaccine stocks, could be putting Asia, which accounts for about 40 per cent of the world's population, at risk of yellow fever importation.

Yellow fever vaccine shortages were reported from March this year [2013], and the union health ministry has yet to remedy the problem caused by stock mismanagement. The office of Dr Sujeet Kumar Singh, Deputy Director General (International Health), Ministry of Health, when contacted, claimed that orders have been placed and that the vaccines would be available from next month [August 2013]. Such claims have been made by the health ministry since May [2013], but the shortage has only got worse.

So, how serious is the risk? "The mathematical probability of bringing yellow fever into India is dependent on where people travel, for how long they stay there, and on the vaccine coverage of the people who live there in an endemic area. You cannot hope that the _Aedes_ mosquito, which is abundant in our country, will be a poor vector for yellow fever. Once the virus establishes itself in India, you will have enormous consequences to our economy/public health system," said Dr Jacob John of the Community Medicine department of CMC Vellore.

In March 2011, WHO organised a consultation on the yellow fever threat to India and SE Asia in which it was concluded that the threat of introduction of YF [virus] into Asia was very real in the age of faster air travel.

At the consultation, it was revealed that 2 cases of unvaccinated tourists being infected with yellow fever were reported in the US in 1999 and 2002, and both had died. Northern Europe had 3 imported cases between 1991 and 2002, of which 2 died. The infection did not spread as the cases happened in non-mosquito season in the US, and in Europe the vector _Aedes_ mosquito does not occur in Northern Europe.

However the _Aedes_ mosquito, the vector for dengue and yellow fever [viruses], is widely prevalent in Asia, as Indians are only too well aware. In the consultation, it was warned that stocks of YF vaccine were insufficient if a major epidemic were to occur in Asia.

Despite such warnings, the union health ministry in India remained apathetic to the shortage, which was imminent since the shut-down of the unit in Russia from where government imported vaccines. The requirement for the YF vaccine was about 10.5 million vials, of which the Central Research Institute, Kasauli supplied about 1/3rd. The Kasauli unit was shut down in 2008.

While the government used to supply the vaccine at a few hundred rupees from its 15 vaccination centres across the country, the vaccine available in the market costs over Rs 1500 [USD 25]. Today, the same vaccine is being sold for as much as Rs 20 000 [USD 335] in the black market.

Yellow fever vaccination is required for travel to 44 endemic countries in Africa and South America. "It is not for those countries to ensure that travellers are vaccinated. It is for India to ensure, since the risk is to the Indian population. Immigration officers are supposed to check your vaccination status, and if a person who visited an endemic country is not vaccinated, the person has to be quarantined. None of this seems to be happening. If sizeable numbers are travelling without vaccination, you are increasing the risk of importation," said Dr Rajeeb Dasgupta of the Centre of Social Medicine and Community Health in JNU.

[Byline: Rema Nagarajan]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[This report is of serious concern due to the unavailability of YF vaccine and because yellow fever vaccination cards are being issued without administration of the vaccine. The arrival of an individual returning home to India from a YF endemic country viremic with YF virus could initiate an ongoing urban outbreak that could quickly become a very serious public health problem in India and beyond, since the vector mosquito is present in most of India and Southeast Asia, where YF virus is absent currently. One hopes that Indian health authorities will take this situation seriously, hasten importation of the vaccine, and bring a halt to the issuance of fake YF vaccination cards.

Maps of India can be seen at
http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/india/i ... al-map.htm and http://healthmap.org/r/1pSH. - Mod.TY]
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Gelbfieber - Verfügbarkeit Impfstoff in Indien

Beitragvon Birgitt » 12.08.2013 20:50

YELLOW FEVER VACCINE AVAILABILITY - INDIA (04)
**********************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

Date: Fri 19 Jul 2013
Source: The Economic Times [edited]
http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/new ... 170909.cms


In a major relief for those travelling to African [and most South American] nations, government today [19 Jul 2013] received a consignment of 60 000 yellow fever vaccine doses through WHO which will be distributed across the country.

There has been an acute shortage of the vaccine in the country, and users are finding it difficult to get the vaccine ever since the Kasauli-based Central Research Institute stopped its manufacture [in 2008].

The yellow fever vaccine is compulsory for all those travelling to African nations, after the World Health Organisation held a consultation on yellow fever saying the threat of introduction of yellow fever [virus] into Asia was very real in the age of faster air travel.

"There was a shortage of yellow fever vaccine, as WHO was not supplying it, leading to problems for users. We have procured 60 000 vaccines, and the same are being distributed to 27 vaccination centres across the country for use," Director General of Health Service Jagdish Prasad told PTI.

The Health Ministry has already placed an order of 275 000 doses of the vaccine from the WHO, which are likely to be received soon and would be sufficient for 2 years.

The yellow fever vaccine is available at 27 government vaccination centres free of cost and is also available on the open market. However, due to shortage of the vaccine, it is being sold on the black market by private retailers, leading to problems for those travelling to African nations.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[The arrival of the yellow fever (YF) vaccine will not only be a relief for travelers in India going to YF virus endemic countries in Africa and South America, it will also be a relief to public health authorities in India and Southeast Asia generally. The arrival of an individual returning home to India from a YF endemic country viremic with YF virus could initiate an ongoing urban outbreak that could quickly become a very serious public health problem in India and beyond, since the vector mosquito is present in most of India and Southeast Asia, where YF virus is absent currently. One hopes that the arrival of the vaccine and its free administration will end the illegal sale of fake YF vaccination cards as well. As soon as all travelers in India bound for YF countries receive the vaccine, the risk of introduction of YF virus will be eliminated.

Maps of India can be seen at
http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/india/i ... al-map.htm and http://healthmap.org/r/1pSH. - Mod.TY]
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Impfvorschriften Gelbfieber - Nigeria

Beitragvon Birgitt » 28.08.2013 11:27

YELLOW FEVER - AFRICA (22): NIGERIA, FAKE CARDS
***********************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

Date: Tue 27 Aug 2013
Source: World Stage [edited]
http://www.worldstagegroup.com/worldsta ... 0&catid=10


Nigeria's Minister of Health, Prof. Onyebuchi Chukwu, has urged travellers who were still using the old yellow [yellow fever (YF) vaccination] card to replace it with the new encoded one. Chukwu, while addressing newsmen in Abuja, said that foreign countries had been informed not to recognise the old card by 1 Oct 2013.

He said: "We are giving new cards now; please don't accept any old card as a fresh person if you get immunised today. If you are vaccinated against yellow fever, demand the yellow card, the new one. Now, the question will be what about those people who are vaccinated for whom their immunisation is still current? If you even bring it to the Ministry of Health today, go to the Department of Public Health, and it will be replaced. If their marking tells us you bought it, if you bought it, we will vaccinate you; the process is N 1000 [USD 6.18] only. Nobody should cause you to pay more; we will vaccinate you here in the ministry, and we will give you the correct yellow card. If the old one you bring shows clearly you actually were vaccinated properly, we will just give you the new one and put all the documentation aright. So, 1 Oct 2013 is the date we have set so far; after that date, the old one will not be recognised."

Chukwu said that earlier, states and the private sector were printing the card, "but now it is only the Federal Ministry of Health that is printing the card." He added that in terms of distribution, the ministry issued to only the National Primary Health Care Development Agency because it had the vaccines. "The other sector that also gets the card from the ministry is the Port Health Authority, which also does the vaccination, and they belong to the Federal Ministry of Health," Chukwu said.

The minister said children who were immunised routinely would not need the card except if they were travelling out of the country. According to him, those who need the yellow card are people who intend to travel outside the country.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[The sale of fake yellow fever vaccination cards to individuals who did not receive the vaccine presents a serious public health problem. Susceptible, unvaccinated individuals can contribute to a YF outbreak. YF virus is endemic in Nigeria. Unless the situation has changed recently, Nigeria is at risk for yellow fever outbreaks because it is the only country among 13 in West Africa yet to conduct mass vaccination, as was indicated in a ProMED-mail post of 24 Oct 2012 (archive no. 20121026.1366454). One hopes that the Ministry of Health's initiative to issue new cards, accompanied by vaccination, or replacement cards for old, legitimate ones will rectify the earlier problem of fake cards.

A map of Nigeria showing the locations of the states can be accessed at http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/africa/nigeria_pol93.jpg, and a HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/r/1qGF. - Mod.TY]
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Re: Impfvorschriften Gelbfieber

Beitragvon Leipnizkeks » 15.12.2013 22:36

Engpass: Impfstoff gegen Gelbfieber geht aus

Keine Gelbfieber-Impfung möglich: Wegen technischer Probleme in der Produktionsstätte kann nach SPIEGEL-Informationen derzeit in Deutschland nicht gegen die gefährliche Krankheit vorgesorgt werden. Sollte der Engpass länger anhalten, könnte das auch Fußballfans Ärger bringen.


http://www.spiegel.de/gesundheit/diagno ... 39196.html

ich wollte mich im november für senegal und gambia impfen lassen (erstimpfung). die gesundheitsämter in wiesbaden, mainz und frankfurt hatten keinen impfstoff mehr. ich mußte nach frankfurt zur privaten BCRT reisepraxis fahren, dort kostete die impfung 69 euro, ich hatte den eindruck, die hatten gehortet und gerne einen aufschlag erhoben. äußerst seltsam daß ein privatunternehmen impfstoff en masse (sie schreiben noch heute, sie hätten immer genug auf vorrat) hat, und die öffentlichen stellen gar nichts mehr haben.

auch interessant wäre zu wissen, welches technisches problem da genau vorliegen soll, und warum ein defekt bei sanofi alles lahm legt, schließlich gibt es angeblich drei hersteller: http://www.gelbe-liste.de/wirkstoffe/w/ ... toff_47775
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Re: Impfvorschriften Gelbfieber

Beitragvon marylin » 16.12.2013 10:02

Dann lass es direkt an der Grenze machen- z.B. TOGO- BENIN. Kostet 3 Euro
Oder hol Dir eine Impfbefreiung wegen Allergie.
In München z.B. wird das so ausgestellt, daß es wie eine Impfung aussieht.
Weiteres gerne per PN.
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Re: Impfvorschriften Gelbfieber

Beitragvon Ulli Dorn » 16.12.2013 10:55

Nun ja, eine Gelbfieberimpfung an der Grenze?

Die Grenze Togo-Benin kenne ich (noch) nicht, aber sicher ist dort alles bestens organisiert? Auch Kühlmöglichkeiten für die sachgemäße Lagerung eines Lebendimpfstoffs sind natürlich vorhanden und überlagerte Chargen werden korrekt aussortiert, oder?

Nee, im Ernst: ich habe an verschiedenen anderen Grenzen gesehen wie mehr oder weniger zwangsweise Gelbfieberimpfungen durchgeführt wurden. Das kann man m. E. nun wirklich niemandem empfehlen.

Gruß

Ulli
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